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Wersja: 7.x

Database performance


A proper configuration of the database server is an important element within the system implementation process. This article does not describe the configuration procedures, but highlights a few crucial points in optimizing a server environment. These guidelines are not mandatory, they are suggestions that result from many years of experience within the IT environment:

  1. Your friends are: vmstat / dstat, iostat, top, ps and any graphical history of values.

  2. Define the bottleneck (read/write, memory, CPU, network). How? Refer to point 1.

  3. Server optimization according to the process: problem analysis > consideration > change (only one change a time) > test > implement > begin the process again until you achieve satisfactory / optimal results.

  4. Hardware

    • Recommended to use RAID 10 (RAID 5 may not be sufficient).
    • In most cases, the speed of CPU is the bottleneck, not the number of cores. It is a good idea to invest in faster CPUs.
    • Use standard 1Gbit everywhere you can (in particular to connect application server to database server).
    • Use drives with large cache (and protect it appropriately).
    • Do not use virtualization for database servers!
  5. Software

    • Use optimal systems (SLES, RHEL, Debian, CentOS).
    • Use 64-bit architecture.
    • Use the most up-to-date stable versions (kernel >= 2.6.12).
    • Use mainstream file system, e.g. ext3, xfs.
    • Not necessary to modify your operating system, because it is already optimal!
    • Use a thread cache from your operating system.
  6. Database

    • The big three (key_buffer_size, innodb_buffer_pool_size, innodb_log_file_size).
    • Do not modify anything, unless you know what it is for. Use ready-made configuration templates, which establish a proper database optimization. Ask a specialist for advice!
    • Unconditionally use InnoDB! (and the optimization for this engine).
    • Monitor slow queries to optimize them.
  7. Application

    • Index
      • All attributes where you JOIN.
      • All attributes where you filter (WHERE).
      • All attributes where you ORDER or Group BY.
      • All attributes where you do an Index Scan.
    • Order
      • Index elements only from left to right.
      • For compound indexes, e.g. INDEX (a, b), INDEX (a,b(10)).

The server optimization can increase the application speed up to 2x, the application optimization can increase the application operation up to 10x.